The Zenith model is the most widely used travel modelling system in the country. Developed by VLC and first launched in 1988, it now represents all major metropolitan regions in Australia.

Zenith is a comprehensive and constantly expanding travel demand model. Its distinguishing feature is its ability to accurately simulate public transport systems and services, as well as the characteristics and performance of the road system.

Zenith is easily customised to the needs of specific applications and responsive to the large scope of variables relevant to planners and policy-makers. For example, Zenith has been adapted to help measure the success of the outdoor advertising industry, through the development of our MOVE model.

Since its establishment, Zenith has been used to successfully complete hundreds of projects, including regional planning studies, major road projects, toll road studies, metro rail projects, and public transport service planning studies.

Traditionally only available through a consulting relationship, the Zenith model is now available for use under license.


Benefits of Zenith models

  • The models are kept up to date through continual private sector investment.
  • Our research and development team develops the software to ensure constant innovation.
  • Zenith is a multi-modal model, integrating all modes of travel.
  • Zenith specifically models active transport.
  • The models are very detailed and include:
    • a disaggregate zoning system
    • eight home-based trip purposes
    • six non-home-based trip purposes
    • the incorporation of each route variant and stop for all public transport modes.


Key features


Public transport crowding

The Zenith model includes the costs of over-crowding on public transport, affecting travellers’ choice of destination, mode, route and stop. As a result, the model can be used to assess the likely demand and economic benefit of capacity-increasing transit projects.

Toll choice

The Zenith model has an unrivalled track record of accurately predicting toll road patronage in Australia.

Fully multi-modal

Zenith models consider numerous access modes to transit, including walking, park ‘n’ ride and kiss ‘n’ ride. This feature is essential, considering the importance of these modes in Australia’s sprawling cities.


All Zenith models include a minimum of three periods.

Disaggregate travel zones

All Zenith models can be run at sub-SA1 travel zones. This is essential in transit studies where accessibility to the transit system is a major factor.

Disaggregate travel market segmentation

Zenith models include data showing travel by residents and visitors. Results are segmented by numerous journey purposes and car ownership levels. In addition, freight movement can be measured. 


Zenith for public transport brochure 

Click the image below to learn how Zenith can be used for your next public transport project.


Zenith Documentation


Zenith 3.0.0

Zenith Framework Technical Notes

  • Zenith Framework Working Paper A – Model Design and Architecture: Technical Note detailing the design and architecture of Zenith


  • Zenith Framework Working Paper B – Household Segmentation: Technical Note detailing the Household Segmentation Model


  • Zenith Framework Working Paper C – Trip Productions: Technical Note detailing the Trip Generation Model


  • Zenith Framework Working Paper D – Travel Market Segmentation: Technical Note detailing the Travel Market Segmentation Model


  • Zenith Framework Working Paper E – Destination Choice: Technical Note detailing the Destination Choice model


  • Zenith Framework Working Paper F – Period Allocation: Technical Note detailing the Period Allocation Model


  • Zenith Framework Working Paper G – Mode Choice: Technical Note detailing the Mode Choice model


  • Zenith Framework Working Paper H – Static Traffic Assignment: Technical Note detailing the Static Traffic Assignment process


  • Zenith Framework Working Paper I – Static Transit Assignment: Technical Note detailing the Static Transit (Public Transport) Assignment process



Zenith Victoria Technical Notes

  • Working Paper 2 – Review of VISTA: Technical Note exploring the reliability of VISTA09


  • Working Paper 3 – Household Segmentation Model: Estimation & validation of the Household Segmentation Model


  • Working Paper 4a – Home Based Trip Production Model: Estimation & validation of the Home Based Trip Production Model


  • Working Paper 4b – Non Home Based Trip Productions: Estimation & validation of the Non-Home Based Trip Production Model


  • Working Paper 5 – Travel Market Segmentation Model: Estimation & validation of the Travel Market Segmentation Model


  • Working Paper 6 – Destination Choice Model: Estimation & validation of the Destination Choice Model


  • Working Paper 7 – Period Allocation Model: Estimation & validation of the Period Allocation Model


  • Working Paper 8 – Mode Choice Model: Estimation & validation of the Mode Choice Model: Overall Validation of the Model using observed data


  • Working Paper 9 – Model Validation: Overall Validation of the Model using observed data



Zenith 2.0.0

Zenith Framework Technical Notes

  • Brochure: Zenith Model of Victoria: An Overview of the Zenith Model of Victoria


  • TN01 – Data Sources for Model Validation: Technical Note detailing observed data used for model validation


  • TN02 – Analysis of VISTA07: Technical Note exploring the reliability of VISTA07


  • TN03 – Home Based Trip Production Model: Estimation & validation of the Home Based Trip Production Model


  • TN04 – Non-Home Based Trip Production Model: Estimation & validation of the Non-Home Based Trip Production Model


  • TN05 – Household & Travel Market Segmentation: Estimation & validation of the Household and Travel Market Segmentation Models


  • TN06 – Period Allocation and Vehicle Occupancy: Estimation & validation of the Period Allocation and Vehicle Occupancy Models


  • TN07 – Mode Choice: Estimation & validation of the Mode Choice Model


  • TN08 – Destination Choice Model: Estimation & validation of the Destination Choice Model


  • TN09 – Overall Model Validation: Overall Validation of the Model using observed data


  • TN10 – Backcasting & Sensitivity Testing: Results of Backcasting and Sensitivity Testing


  • TN11 – Reference Case Model Assumptions and Results: Reference Case Model Assumptions and Results


  • TN13 – Airport Travel Model: The Airport Travel Model


  • Zenith Technical Brochure: A High-Level Description of the Zenith Models



To find out more about Zenith, contact our team for more information.